عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The thought of fall and collapse of political systems has been one of the most ancient human thoughts and also the intellectual scientists as well as political philosophers. In fact, each of these scholars has viewed this issue from a particular perspective. Ibn Khaldun and Machiavelli who lived contemporarily and in contiguous borders, investigated the thought regarding the fall and collapse of political and governmental systems. Both of these two intellectuals were realistic and using analytical and causal methods and also using practical experience in politics as well as immersing in the history thought in political and social issues and events of their age. Accepting the thought of historic recurrence, they are to justify and interpret the reasons of historical events and upheavals. Ibn Khaldun is led to historical determinism and considered conditions as procrustean he does not consider any path to exit crises. On the other hand, Machiavelli, in spite of belief in historic recurrence, proposes some solution for exiting crises and tries to present a path for preventing revolution and the rule of fortune. In other words, he knows the past a light on the path of the future. Therefore, Ibn Khaldun believes that the main factor of establishing a government and power is Asabiyya which by creating an intersubjective relation between tribes, increases the political power and force. From Machiavelli's perspective, the central role is played by virtus (virtue) which by fighting with furtuna (fortune) and dominating it, states and governments are established. The important issue in the thoughts of these two thinkers is that they both overemphasize religion as a political tool and a factor effective on politics. Thought regarding the reasons of the decline and fall in the world of Islam was started by Ibn Khaldun and ended by him too however, in the western world, Machiavelli's path continued. The purpose of the preset study is to investigate and interpret the reasons of the decline and collapse of political systems through studying ideas and thoughts of Ibn Khaldun and Machiavelli in a mixed-method, i.e. comparative and causal-analytical method.